How far does a mouse cursor travel in a year?

Your mouse cursor does a pretty good amount of moving. It darts from buttons to text boxes to links, always sending you to the next thing you want to look at. Those movements are all pretty small – only a couple inches across the front of your monitor… and yet one could easily see them adding up to pretty good distances over time. So, how far does a mouse cursor travel in a year? That’s a question that desperately needs answering.

Mouse Cursor

Remember back in Windows 98 days, when it was cool to change your mouse cursors and your sound settings?

I actually set out to answer this question back in high school and I determined that a few really basic calculations could yield an answer. If I kept track of the mouse pointer’s X, Y coordinates in pixels on my screen every millisecond, I could use the Pythagorean theorem to determine how far it had traveled since its position one millisecond ago. Of course, that gave me a distance in pixels rather than inches… a challenge which was easily overcome by measuring my monitor’s width and height and calculating the number of pixels per inch in each direction. Then, all I had to do was add things up over time!

In case you’re interested, here’s the code I wrote, in an old game programming language called Blitz Basic, which I apparently thought was the bee’s knees at the time. Disclaimer: I wrote this code in my teens and it’s terrible. In fact, I cleaned up four or five things before I could even bring myself to post it on the web… and it’s still terrible.

OK. So, I’ve got a program to answer my question. How far does a mouse cursor move in a year, then?

Well, I’ve never tracked the cursor on a particular computer for a year… yet. But I have been tracking the cursor on my work computer for a few days, and have a pretty solid average to go on.

Recently, my mouse has been moving somewhere around 2393 feet, 7 inches per day. That’s just shy of half a mile. Assuming I work 245 days in a given year (52 * 5, minus some PTO), that’s around 120 miles that my mouse would travel in a given year.

If all those little mouse movements were put in a straight line going the same direction, my mouse could leave the office and be chilling at the beach by next January!

Miscellaneous Extras:

  1. Apparently, when you hit ctrl-alt-del, your computer is taken to some other dimension mouse coordinates-wise. Like, the ctrl-alt-delete screen’s pixel coordinates are miles away from your regular desktop in physical terms. I do not know why this is, but I did have to protect for it in my code (or, at least, I did when I came back to it as an adult).
  2. You can download a pre-built version of the program from Dropbox here, if you want to. Edit the .ini file to specify your screen width and height. And be warned: this will create a little black window at the top right of your desktop that can’t be killed without terminating the Windows process. I take no responsibility for what this program might do to your computer – download it and use it at your own risk.

What do Catholics really believe about grace and works?

Over the years, I’ve talked to a disconcerting number of people who have an unbelievably over-simplified view of the Catholic doctrine of salvation. Basically, it boils down to this: “well, Catholics think you’re saved by good works, and Protestants think you’re saved by grace.” I’ve heard it from Protestants. I’ve heard it from Catholics. And even people who don’t consider themselves religious jump on the bandwagon. Unfortunately, the whole notion is hogwash.

Hog in Washing Machine

Hogwash.

So, I could try to explain it all to you… but, since I’m not a theologian, I don’t think I’m qualified. Instead, we’re going to do a quiz! Yay!

The Quiz

Here’s ten quotes about grace and works (with some baptism thrown in for good measure) that come from several different authoritative documents in various Catholic and Protestant churches. See if you can tell which ones are Protestant and which are Catholic. (Mouse over the black boxes to see the answers… no cheating!)

  1. “If any one says that man may be justified before God by his own works, whether done through the teaching of human nature, or that of the law, without the grace of God through Jesus Christ, he is a heretic.” Catholic – Council of Trent
  2. “Men cannot be justified before God by their own strength, merits, or works, but are freely justified for Christ’s sake, through faith, when they believe that they are received into favor, and that their sins are forgiven for Christ’s sake, who, by His death, has made satisfaction for our sins.” Protestant – Augsburg Confession (Lutheran)
  3. “If any one says that without the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, and without His help, man can believe, hope, love, or repent as he ought, so that the grace of Justification may be bestowed upon him, he is a heretic.” Catholic – Council of Trent
  4. “We can have merit in God’s sight only because of God’s free plan to associate man with the work of his grace.” Catholic – Catechism
  5. “It is not for anything wrought in them, or done by them, but for Christ’s sake alone that they are justified.” Protestant – Westminster Confession (Presbyterian)
  6. “Faith is bound to bring forth good fruits, and it is necessary to do good works commanded by God, because of God’s will, but we should not rely on those works to merit justification before God.” Protestant – Augsburg Confession (Lutheran)
  7. “The merits of our good works are gifts of the divine goodness.” Catholic – Catechism
  8. “Their ability to do good works is not at all from themselves, but entirely from the Spirit of Christ.” Protestant – Westminster Confession (Presbyterian)
  9. “[Baptism] is necessary to salvation, and through Baptism is offered the grace of God.” Protestant – Augsburg Confession (Lutheran)
  10. “Justification is conferred in Baptism, the sacrament of faith.” Catholic – Catechism

The Point

Surprised by how difficult it was to tell these quotes apart? You’re probably not alone. That’s because the teachings of the various Christian traditions have been vastly over-simplified in popular culture. (In case you didn’t catch it, Catholic teaching says “salvation by works” is a heresy.) It’s just not as cut and dry as we’ve been told.

With that being said, please don’t leave thinking that Catholics and Protestants think exactly the same things about grace, faith, and works. There are important and meaningful doctrinal differences between the various churches. I’ve just cherry picked some quotes in order to prove a point.

St Peter's Basilica

Differences between the churches include the fact that the Roman Catholics own a whole country and Protestants don’t…

If you’d like to learn more, I suggest reading the documents referenced above. They’re short, they’re relatively easy reading, and they’re very informative (and hopefully edifying). It’ll be worth your time.

 

What causes snow, sleet, and freezing rain?

If you’re from some God-forsaken outpost in Siberia, pretty much the only wintry precipitation you ever experience is snow. But, if you’re from the Southern US like me, your winters are often sprinkled with a few helpings of several different types of water falling from the sky. Why is that? What causes snow sleet and freezing rain? Let’s find out!

First things first

First of all, let’s start with some definitions, ’cause I’ve gotten into some pretty heated debates with people over what terms apply to what stuff falling from the sky.

  • Snow – We all know what snow is. The white fluffy stuff that comes in flakes.
  • Freezing Rain – This is the stuff that’s a liquid while it’s falling, but turns into a glaze of ice all over everything after it makes impact with the ground. It is not pellets of ice, as lots of people will try to tell you.
  • Sleet – This is little pellets of ice that turn into pellets of ice before they hit the ground. Sleet is not light snow or a snow/rain mix… unless you’re from England. It’s also not hail (more on that later).
Freezing Rain

The aftermath of some pretty serious freezing rain – note the thick glaze of ice over the branches.
(Image credit: Nicolas Perrault III on English Wikipedia.)

How does it form?

Whether water comes out of the sky in the form of rain, freezing rain, sleet, or snow all depends on the temperature of the air – and, more importantly, the temperature of various air pockets that often sit on top of each other… As the National Weather Service explains:

  • Snow – Snow forms when you have cold air from ground level all the way up to the clouds. Frozen water molecules in the clouds accumulate into snowflakes, then start falling to the ground. After a while, things start to pile up.
  • Sleet – Sometimes, snowfall doesn’t go quite that neatly. Suppose a big pocket of warm air comes between the cold air in the clouds and the cold air on the ground. Snow will form in the clouds, melt in the pocket of warm air on its way down, and then re-freeze in the cold air near the ground. By the time it hits the ground, it’s just a frozen water droplet.
  • Freezing Rain – Suppose you had a pocket of warm air (like in the sleet example) that started getting pretty close to ground level. Snow would form in the clouds, melt in the pocket of warm air, hit the cold air near the ground… but run out of time to re-freeze before impact. This causes freezing rain – the precipitation is still melted when it gets to the ground, but it quickly starts freezing up on whatever it lands on.
  • Plain Old Rain – You can get plain old rain when you’ve got warm air in the clouds and the water never freezes… or when that pocket of warm air underneath the clouds stretches all the way to the ground. In that scenario, snow will form, melt, and never re-freeze.

So what about hail?

Like sleet, hail is ice pellets that fall from the sky. But it’s slightly different, and it forms in a very different process. As we’ve already seen, sleet forms when water droplets freeze on their way down to earth – it’s one drop that freezes solid. Hail forms inside thunderstorms, freezes way up high, and has layers like an onion. In a hail storm, droplets of water get blown around by all the air inside a thundercloud. As they move around, they encounter cold air (which makes them freeze), then moist air (which adds another layer of water on the outside), then cold air (which freezes them again). This goes on for a while, until they fall down. Scientists are still debating exactly what the process is, but the results can be pretty terrifying…

Well, that’s all for now. Stay safe this winter!

Why are “Yellow” trucks orange?

This one’s been bothering me since I was a kid… You’re driving down the highway when you see a truck with “YELLOW” emblazoned all over the side of it. Except “YELLOW” is sitting in a big old field of orange. And the cab of the truck is bright orange too. What’s the deal?

Yellow Orange Truck

Image Credit: Cam Vilay on Flickr

As it turns out, Yellow actually started out as a taxi company… with (you guessed it) yellow taxis. Though sources disagree on the specifics, it’s pretty clear that one Cleve Harrell started a taxi service in Oklahoma City sometime around 1910. Wanting to differentiate himself from the other taxis in the area, he began painting his Model T Ford taxis yellow in order to attract attention. (Although Harrell seems to be the first to have painted a taxi cab yellow, it was John Hertz who popularized yellow taxis nationwide.)

Yellow Model T

“You can have any color you want, as long as you’re willing to paint it yourself.” – Henry Ford
(Image Credit: Lars-Göran Lindgren Sweden)

The scheme worked well and, after a few years, Harrell wanted to expand the business. He didn’t have the capital to make it happen, so he asked his brother, A. J. Harrell, to invest. The other Mr. Harrell got on board, and the brothers opened a joint venture. The “Yellow Cab and Transit Company” would be a hybrid taxi cab operator and freight-hauling service.

Unfortunately, the brothers didn’t exactly get along very well over the years. Again, sources disagree as to whether they were fighting over business or women, but it’s pretty clear they weren’t too happy with each other. So, they dissolved the partnership. Cleve took the taxi cab half of the business, which he eventually sold off. A. J. took over the trucking side of the operation, which he started to build into the major corporation we know today.

So that explains where the name “yellow” came from… the joint venture was named for Cleve Harrell’s yellow taxi cabs, and the name stuck even after the original Yellow Company was split apart. But why the orange? I’ll explain, after a quick break for a cool YouTube video.

The orange color for the trucks and logo was a matter of pure practicality. In 1929, A. J. Harrell started to get concerned about road safety. So, he asked the DuPont corporation to figure out what color would be most visible on the highway. DuPont concluded that “swamp holly orange” would be the safest color to paint the Yellow trucking company’s vehicles. Without so much as batting an eyelash, Harrell went for it… and the Yellow trucking company has been paintings its trucks (and logos) orange ever since.

Additional interesting notes:

  • The swamp holly is a rare form of holly tree that grows in the Southeastern US and which produces dull reddish-orange berries in the fall.
  • The company is now formally named “YRC Worldwide” after a 2006-2009 acquisition/merger with Roadway (which, conveniently, also had orange trucks).
  • As I mention above, there’s a lot of disagreement about company history. At least some of this seems to be related to the disagreement between the Harrell brothers. The YRC site, for example, doesn’t even mention Clevel Harrell’s role in starting the business… That’s almost a 100-year grudge!

What the heck does “Auld Lang Syne” mean?

It’s New Year’s Eve. If you’re staying up, there’s at least a 50/50 chance that somebody around you is going to break into a rousing chorus of Auld Lang Syne. But what does it mean? Well, the short answer is that it’s Scots for “Days of Long Ago.” For a slightly more detailed explanation, keep reading. And feel free to listen while you read!

As you might have gathered, “Auld Lang Syne” is not English… or not exactly. In fact, the song we sing today was originally written in Scots, a Germanic language spoken in certain regions of Scotland which has similar roots to English. So, the text sounds familiar to English readers but isn’t exactly intelligible.

So where did the song come from? Well, we don’t really know where it started, but we do know how it got popularized. In the late 1700’s, Scottish poet Robert Burns was walking around town when he heard an old man singing a song to the tune of a traditional folk melody. Burns liked the song so much he wrote it down, submitted it to a museum, and then went about re-working it into an original poem, published in 1788.

Most of the original poem is fairly unintelligible to English-speakers (it includes such doozies as “we twa hae run about the braes, and pou’d the gowans fine”), but Wikipedia users were kind enough to translate it into English for us mere mortals. Here’s the full English text…

Should old acquaintance be forgot,
and never brought to mind?
Should old acquaintance be forgot,
and days of long ago?

CHORUS:
For days of long ago, my dear,
for days of long ago,
we’ll take a cup of kindness yet,
for days of long ago.
And surely you’ll buy your pint cup!
and surely I’ll buy mine!
And we’ll take a cup o’ kindness yet,
for days of long ago.

CHORUS

We two have run about the slopes,
and picked the daisies fine;
But we’ve wandered many a weary foot,
since days of long ago.

CHORUS

We two have paddled in the stream,
from morning sun till dine†;
But seas between us broad have roared
since days of long ago.

CHORUS

And there’s a hand my trusty friend!
And give me a hand o’ thine!
And we’ll take a right good-will draught,
for days of long ago.

CHORUS

So there you have it, folks! That’s what “Auld Lang Syne” is all about. Happy 2015!

New Years at Time's Square

Image Credit: Replytojain on English Wikipedia